EM 1110-2-1100 (Part I)
30 Apr 02
be used on noncohesive beds but are unsuitable for rock, organic materials, or wet clays and silts. The units
can be installed in a variety of configurations at the site (Figure I-3-16) (Department of the Army 1990).
Figure I-3-16. DeLong self-elevating barge piers. Upper figure shows finger piers, lower a
T-type marginal wharf (from Department of the Army 1990)
g. Rapidly Installed Breakwater System. Engineers and scientists at CHL are developing a Rapidly
Installed Breakwater (RIB) system to address problems encountered by the U.S. armed forces while
offloading ships during Logistics Over The Shore operations. When seas become sufficiently energetic
during offloading, the capabilities of ship-based crane operators and stevedore crews are severely restricted.
The RIB system, consisting of a series of floating breakwater units that are assembled in a "V" orientation,
is designed to create a "pool" of calmer water where the crews will be able to continue to unload vessels even
during storms. For many years, CHL had been involved with the design and deployment of floating
breakwaters, primarily for application within bays or estuaries which are semi-protected from large waves.
But, these structures were intended to attenuate waves with heights not exceeding 4 ft and periods not
exceeding 4 sec, while in an oceanic environment, waves with heights up to 10 ft are common during storms,
with associated periods up to 10 sec. To date, research efforts have concentrated on military applications for
the RIB system. Potential civil applications include rescue and recovery operations, temporary small vessel
shelter from energetic seas, and to protect exposed dredging and marine operations (e.g., bridge repair,
rubble-mound breakwater construction),.
History of Coastal Engineering