EM 1110-2-1100 (Part I)
31 July 03 (Change 1)
coastal engineering reference, some aspects of navigation and harbor design are not included and its primary
focus is shore protection.
c. Coastal Engineering Manual, CEM
. The advent
models, reliable field instrumentation
techniques, and improved understandings of the physical relationships which influence coastal processes lead
to more sophisticated approaches in shore protection design in the later 1980s and 90s. Numerous guidance
and analytical tools have been developed over the last 15 years to assist the coastal engineer in predicting not
only the stability of a beach fill, but also its performance during extreme events. Cross-shore and alongshore
change models, hydrodynamic hind cast data bases, and stochastic statistical approaches have been developed
to provide the practicing coastal engineer with procedures for quantifying the flood control benefits of a
proposed design. The functional interaction of beach erosion control structures (i.e., groins and breakwaters)
can be analyzed with numerical simulation. Seawalls can be designed not only for stability, but also
physically modeled to predict various elements of the wave-structure interaction including scour and
overtopping. A "modern" technical document incorporating all the tools and procedures used to plan, design,
construct, and maintain coastal projects was needed. The USACE tasked the Coastal Engineering Research
Center and, later, the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory with producing a new reference incorporating
established science and much of this new technology, to be called the Coastal Engineering Manual (CEM).
Included in the CEM are the basic principles of coastal processes, methods for computing planning and design
parameters, and guidance on how to develop and conduct studies in support of coastal storm damage
reduction, shore protection, and navigation projects. Broader coverage of all aspects of coastal engineering
are provided, including new sections on navigation and harbor design, dredging and dredged material
placement, structure repair and rehabilitation, wetland and low energy shore protection, cohesive shores, risk
analysis, numerical simulation, the engineering process, and other topics.
The CEM contains two major subdivisions: science-based parts and engineering-based parts. The science-
based parts include "Part II - Coastal Hydrodynamics," "Part III Coastal Sediment Processes," and
"Part IV Coastal Geology." These provide the scientific foundation on which the engineering-based parts
a. Part II. "Coastal Hydrodynamics" is organized to lead the reader from the fundamental principles
of linear and other wave theories, including irregular waves and spectral analysis, to ocean wave generation
and through the process of transformation as the wave approaches and reacts with the coastline. Analysis of
water level variations including astronomical tides and storm surges are presented along with the
hydrodynamics of coastal inlets and harbors are included in other chapters.
b. Part III. "Coastal Sediment Processes" includes chapters on sediment properties, along shore and
cross-shore transport, as well as chapters on wind transport, cohesive sediment processes and shelf transport.
c. Part IV. "Coastal Geology" includes chapters on terminology, geomorphology, morphodynamics,
and analytical field techniques.
The two engineering-based parts, Part V "Coastal Project Planning and Design" and Part VI "Design of
Coastal Project Elements" are oriented toward a project-type approach, rather than the individual structure
design approach that characterized the SPM. The architecture and substance of the engineering-based parts
is the result of an internationally-attended workshop in February 1994. A logical systems-based approach
is used for the engineering structure of the CEM. This mirrors the engineering process with guidance in
selecting and using various planning and design tools as appropriate for the project at hand. The engineering
tools are presented in a modular grouping to allow for future updates as the technology continues to advance.
The Coastal Engineering Manual