EM 1110-2-1100 (Part II)
(Change 1) 31 July 2003
in the spring, after the ice has thawed, large waves (although usually significantly smaller than waves in
autumn) can be generated and can affect coastal areas.
(2) One of the issues of critical concern in the Great Lakes is that of mean lake level. These levels have
fluctuated considerably through recorded history in response to periods of low and high precipitation in the
general geographic area. Critical design criteria for many Great Lakes coastal areas are defined by the
superposition of high wave conditions (generated by extratropical storms) on top of high mean lake levels
and storm surges.
Atkinson and Holliday 1977
Atkinson, G. D., and Holliday, C. R. 1977. "Tropical Cyclone Minimum Sea Level Pressure/Maximum
Sustained Wind Relationship for the Western Northern Pacific," Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol 105, pp 421-427.
Barnett, T. P. 1968. "On the Generation, Dissipation, and Prediction of Ocean Wind Waves," J. Geophys.
Res., Vol 2, pp 531-534.
Bouws, Gunther, and Vincent 1985
Bouws, E., Gunther, H., and Vincent, C. L. 1985. "Similarity of Wind Wave Spectrum in Finite-Depth
Water, Part I: Spectral Form," J. Geophys. Res., Vol 85, No. C3, pp 1524-1530.
Bretschneider, C. 1952. "Revised Wave Forecasting Relationships," Proceedings of the 2nd Coastal
Engineering Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 1-5.
Bretschneider, C. 1990. "Tropical Cyclones," Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol 1,
J. B. Herbich, ed., pp 249-270.
Bretschneider and Reid 1953
Bretschneider, C., and Reid, R. O. 1953. "Change in Wave Height Due to Bottom Friction, Percolation and
Refraction," 34th Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union.
Bunting, D. C. 1970. "Evaluating Forecasts of Ocean-Wave Spectra," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol
75, No. 21, pp 4131-4143.
Businger et al. 1971
Businger, J. A., Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., and Bradley, E. F. 1971. "Flux-Profile Relationships in the
Atmoshperic Surface Layer," J. Atmos. Sci., Vol 25, pp 1021-1025.
Camfield, F. E. 1977. "Wind-Wave Propagation Over Flooded, Vegetated Land," Technical Paper No. 77-
12, Coastal Engineering Research Center, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg,
Meteorology and Wave Climate