EM 1110-2-1100 (Part II)
30 Apr 02
Sample NOS tabulation of tide parameters (Harris 1981)
Storms that result from the interaction of a warm front and a cold front are called "extratropical storms" and
are often referred to as Northeasters. Extratropical events impact the east and west coasts of the United States
as well as Alaska and the Great Lakes, but storm-generated surges are most significant along the upper east
coast. Characteristics of both storm types and sources of detailed description follow.
(1) Tropical storms.
(a) Tropical storms are classified according to their intensity, the most severe of which is referred to
as a hurricane. These storms have maximum sustained winds in excess of 74 mph. Similar storms in the
Pacific ocean, west of the International Date Line, are referred to as typhoons. Storms in the Southern
Hemisphere are called tropical cyclones. In order to indicate hurricane intensity, and associated potential
damage, the NOAA National Hurricane Center has adopted the Saffir/Simpson (Saffir 1977, NOAA 1977)
Hurricane Scale. This scale, based partially on maximum wind speeds shown below, ranges from category 1
through the most severe category 5 event. Associated damage, storm surge levels, and evacuation limits are
described in the NOAA publication on tropical cyclones (NOAA 1981).
Water Levels and Long Waves