EM 1110-2-1100 (Part II)
30 Apr 02
(c) The model was preliminarily tested to demonstrate steady-state response to long-term circulation
patterns, wind-induced circulation, and Hudson River inflow-induced circulation. Non-steady testing
included modeling of the dynamic response to tidal constituents, both to the M2 semidiurnal tide and to mixed
tides. Calibration and verification were performed for the periods of April 1976 and May 1976, respectively.
(d) Model results were compared to MESA project prototype data collected during the period from mid-
September 1975 to mid-August 1976. Figure II-5-33 compares model-to-prototype tidal elevations at the
Battery. A global circulation pattern of wind-field-induced circulation is shown in Figure II-5-34.
Example - storm surge modeling.
(a) The coast of Delaware study (Mark, Scheffner, and Borgman 1993) provides an excellent example
of storm surge modeling over very large computational domains. Goals of the effort were to generate stage-
frequency relationships at a variety of locations along the open coast of Delaware and inside Delaware Bay.
The study required tidal calibration and verification to demonstrate that the model could successfully
reproduce tidal circulation. In addition to tide, the model was verified for storm surge by reproducing the
storm surge hydrograph produced by Hurricane Gloria.
(b) Storm track and pressure information for Hurricane Gloria was extracted from the National
Hurricane Center's (NOAA 1981) database and used to generate input to the PBL model. The model selected
for the hydrodynamic effort was the two-dimensional depth-integrated version of the Three-Dimensional
ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) finite-element model (Luettich, Westerink, and Scheffner 1993). This
application demonstrates a very large-domain modeling capability (Luettich, Westerink, and Scheffner 1993),
developed for the Dredging Research Program (DRP) to compute tidal and storm surge simulations along the
(c) The DRP computational grid covers the east coast of the United States, Gulf of Mexico, and
Caribbean Sea on the landward boundary. The offshore boundary is located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean,
extending from Novia Scotia to Venezuela along the 60-deg west longitude line. "Continental-scale"
computational domains are used in the model to minimize difficulties in specifying offshore and lateral
(d) The DRP computational grid was modified to provide increased resolution in Delaware Bay and
within several small bays between the entrances of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. Figure II-5-35 shows
the global limits of the 12,000-node grid. A blow-up of the coast of Delaware and Delaware Bay areas is
shown in Figure II-5-36.
(e) The ADCIRC model was verified to several locations at which NOAA tidal constituents were
available. An example model-to-prototype (constituent) comparison to Lewes, DE, is shown in Figure II-5-
38. Model-to-prototype data for the storm surge produced by Hurricane Gloria are also compared at Lewes,
as shown in Figure II-5-39.
Water Levels and Long Waves