EM 1110-2-1100 (Part II)
30 Apr 02
Water depth at which Hs is maximum in the surf zone (Goda 1985)
and stream function wave theory, can be used to estimate (with small conservatism) crest heights at the
(d) Grouping of individual high waves can influence functional design (e.g. runup and overtopping of
a breakwater or revetment) and structural design. The recommended way to account for this effect is through
physical model tests. The tests should ensure that design alternatives that may be prone to damage by wave
groups include a realistic sampling of grouping in the incident waves.
d. Wave climate. Wave climate is discussed in Part II-2.
(1) Design importance. Wave climate affects functional performance of a project and operational
activities. Its impact includes longshore and cross-shore sediment transport, harbor agitation, navigation,
dredging, and surveying.
(2) General climate.
(a) General wave climate is the probabilistic mix of sea states occurring at a site. Key components of
a sea state typically include Hs, Tp, and θp for each major wave system (such as a sea and one or more swell
systems). Sea states along U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts can be expected to include more
Hydrodynamic Analysis and Design Conditions