EM 1110-2-1100 (Part V)
31 Jul 2003
Figure V-3-7. Typical bulkhead types
(3) Revetments. Revetments are a cover or facing of erosion resistant material placed directly on an
existing slope, embankment or dike to protect the area from waves and strong currents. Three major features
are a stable armor layer, a filter cloth or underlayer, and toe protection. The filter and underlayer support the
armor, yet allow for passage of water through the structure. Toe protection prevents undercutting and
provides support for all the layer materials previously mentioned. If the toe fails, the entire revetment can
(a) Figure V-3-8 summarizes a wide range of designs and materials employed for a revetment. Armoring
may be either flexible (normal) or rigid. Riprap and quarrystone designs can tolerate some movement and
shifting or settling of their underlying foundation, yet remain functional. Rigid, concrete or asphalt slabs-on-
grade are generally unable to accommodate any settling.
(b) Typical failure modes for revetment include:
Armor layer damage and interior exposure.
Overtopping and loss of foundation material.
Shore Protection Projects