EM 1110-2-1100 (Part V)
31 Jul 2003
Figure V-3-17. Types of shoreline changes associated with single and multiple breakwater (from EM 1110-2-
information and references on other breakwater classifications can be found in Lesnik (1979), Fulford (1985),
Dally and Pope (1986), EM 1110-2-1617 and Chasten et al. (1993).
(2) Physical processes.
(a) Normal morphological responses. Waves breaking at an angle to the shore produce time-averaged,
longshore (littoral) currents and longshore sediment transport. Consider the left breakwater in Figure V-3-20
with wave energy in the plus direction. Physical processes at macro-level scales in the vicinity of the
breakwater for normal wave and water level conditions are as follows. The breakwater shelters the coast
immediately behind the structure and adjacent areas (diffraction) from the incoming waves. Breaking wave
heights are smaller in the sheltered areas. The exposed, gap areas have larger breaking wave heights. The
Shore Protection Projects