EM 1110-2-1100 (Part III)
30 Apr 02
EXAMPLE PROBLEM III-2-5
Calculate (a) the average (over the directional band) wave height Hmo and determine an equivalent
significant wave height Hsig, (b) wave approach angle in the sediment transport coordinate system,
(c) percentage of the total wave data represented by this wave directional angle band, (d) average peak
spectral wave period Tp, (e) breaking wave height Hb and angle αb, and (f) potential longshore sand
Wave statistics presented in Table III-2-2. The water depth at which the wave statistics were
developed is 27 m. The azimuth angle (from north) of the outward normal to the beach of interest is
approximately 102o. The sediment is quartz-density sand, and Ksig = 0.39. Assume κ = 1.0 for
(a) Weighting the average wave height in each wave height band with the total number of
observations in that band, calculate an average wave height, Hmo = 0.93 m; that is:
Hmo = [(0.5)(12858) + (1.5)(4777) + (2.5)(1133) + (3.5)(288) + (4.5)(45) + (5.5)(3) + (6.5)(2)] / 19106
= 0.93 m
As discussed in Part II-1, Hs and Hmo are approximately equal when irregular wave profiles are
sinusoidal in shape. However, as depth decreases and waves shoal prior to breaking, they become
nonlinear and peaked in shape rather than sinusoidal. According to Part II-1, the two parameters are
within 10 percent of each other if the depth (in meters) is greater than or equal to 0.0975 Tp2. In the
example, 27 m is greater than 0.0975 (8.5 sec)2 = 7.1 m; therefore, the average significant wave Hsig
may be said to be approximately equal to Hmo.
(b) The data in Table III-2-2 represent the angle band that is centered around WIS angle = 135o.
However, the shoreline outward normal angle is 102o (from north), which means that the angle
associated with transport calculations α = 102o - 135o = -33o.
(c) WIS RAL2 data are presented every 3 hr for a 20-year time period, totalling 58,440 data points
for each station (in all wave direction angle bands). The total number of occurrences listed in
Table III-2-2 for the 45o direction band centered around 135o equals 19,106, which means that the
percentage of the total data represented by this angle band equals 19,106/58,440 x 100 percent =
32.7 percent. Scanning the other data for this station (Hubertz et al. 1993, p. A-288 - A-289), this
angle band constitutes the dominant wave direction in terms of number of occurrences for station 72.
Longshore Sediment Transport