EM 1110-2-1100 (Change 1)
31 Jul 03
Concrete box-type structure.
Containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3), chiefly as the minerals calcite and aragonite. When applied to rock, it
implies that as much as 50 percent of the rock is carbonate (e.g., calcareous sand).
The condition of the water surface when there is no WIND WAVES or SWELL.
An artificial watercourse cut through a land area for such uses as navigation and irrigation.
A relatively narrow, deep depression with steep slopes, the bottom of which grades continuously downward. May
be underwater (submarine) or on land (SUBAERIAL).
A land area jutting seaward from a continent or large island which prominently marks a change in, or interrupts
notably, the coastal trend; a prominent feature. Examples: Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
A wave whose velocity of propagation is controlled primarily by the surface tension of the liquid in which the wave
is traveling. Water waves of length less than about 1 inch are considered capillary waves. Waves longer than 1 inch and
shorter than 2 inches are in an indeterminate zone between capillary and gravity waves. See RIPPLE.
The science and art of making maps.
The area which drains naturally to a particular point on a river, thus contributing to its natural discharge.
A raised road across wet or marshy ground, or across water.
In refraction of waves, the name given to the curve to which adjacent orthogonals of waves refracted by a bottom
whose contour lines are curved, are tangents. The occurrence of a caustic always marks a region of crossed orthogonals and
high wave convergence.
CENTRAL PRESSURE INDEX (CPI)
The estimated minimum barometric pressure in the eye (approximate center) of a particular hurricane. The CPI is
considered the most stable index to intensity of hurricane wind velocities in the periphery of the storm; the highest wind
speeds are associated with storms having the lowest CPI.
Appendix A Glossary of Coastal Terminology