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Coastal Engineering Manual
Chapter ll-2. Meteorology and Wave Climate
Table II-2-1. Ranges of Values for the Various Scales of Organized Atmospheric Motions
Temporal variability of wind speeds.
Figure II-2-1. Ratio of wind speed of any duration Ut to the 1-hr wind speed U3600
General structure of winds in the atmosphere.
Figure II-2-3. Equivalent duration for wave generation as a function of fetch and wind speed
Figure II-2-4. Wind profile in atmospheric boundary layer
Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer.
Characteristics of near-surface winds.
Characteristics of near-surface winds. (cont)
Figure II-2-5. Coefficient of drag versus wind speed
Figure II-2-6. Ratio of wind speed at any height to the wind speed at the 10-m height as a function of measurement height for selected values of air-sea temperature difference and wind speed:
EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-2-3
Wind speed transition from land to water.
Figure II-2-8. Amplification RT ratio of Wc (wind speed accounting for effects of air-sea temperature difference) to Ww (wind speed over water without temperature effects)
Figure II-2-9. Surface synoptic chart for 0030Z, 27 October 1950
Figure II-2-10. Surface synoptic weather charts for the Halloween storm of 1991
Figure II-2-11. Key to plotted weather report
Wind estimates based on information from pressure fields and weather maps.
Figure II-2-12. Geostrophic (free air) wind scale (after Bretschneider (1952))
Wind estimates based on information from pressure fields and weather maps. (cont)
Figure II-2-14. Ratio of U*/Ug as a function of Ug for selected values of air-sea temperature difference
Meteorological systems and characteristic waves.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-2-5
Table II-2-2. Local Seas Generated by Various Meteorological Phenomena
Table II-2-2. Local Seas Generated by Various Meteorological Phenomena (cont)
Winds in hurricanes
Winds in hurricanes (cont)
Winds in hurricanes (cont) - Part-II-Chap20034
Figure II-2-16. Climatological variation in Holland's "B" factor (Holland 1980)
Winds in hurricanes (cont) - Part-II-Chap20036
Figure II-2-18. Definition of four radial angles relative to direction of storm movement
Figure II-2-19. Horizontal distribution of wind speed along Radial 1 for a storm with forward velocity VF of (a) 2.5 m/s; (b) 5 m/s; (c) 7.5 m/s
Step-by-step procedure for simplified estimate of winds for wave prediction.
Figure II-2-20. Logic diagram for determining wind speed for use in wave hindcasting and forecasting models
Overland or overwater.
Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting
Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting (cont)
Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting (cont) - Part-II-Chap20044
Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting (cont) - Part-II-Chap20045
Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting (cont) - Part-II-Chap20046
Figure II-2-21. Phillips' constant versus fetch scaled according to Kitaigorodskii.
Figure II-2-22. Definition of JONSWAP parameters for spectral shape
Assumptions in simplified wave predictions.
Figure II-2-23. Fetch-limited wave heights
Figure II-2-24. Fetch-limited wave periods (wind speeds are plotted in increments of 2.5 m/s)
Figure II-2-25. Duration-limited wave heights (wind speeds are plotted in increments of 2.5 m/s)
Figure II-2-26. Duration-limited wave periods
Coastal Wave Climates in the United States.
Figure II-2-28. Values of Hmo/Hmo max plotted relative to center of hurricane (0,0)
Figure II-2-29. Reference locations for Tables II-2-3 through II-2-6
Table II-2-3. Wave Statistics in the Atlantic Ocean
EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-2-7
Gulf of Mexico
Table II-2-4. Wave Statistics in the Gulf of Mexico
Table II-2-5. Wave Statistics in the Pacific Ocean
Table II-2-6. Wave Statistics in the Great Lakes
References - Part-II-Chap20066
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20067
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20068
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20069
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20070
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20071
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20072
References (cont) - Part-II-Chap20073
Definitions of Symbols - Part-II-Chap20074
Definitions of Symbols (cont) - Part-II-Chap20075
Definitions of Symbols (cont) - Part-II-Chap20076
Acknowledgments - Part-II-Chap20077
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