EM 1110-2-1100 (Change 1)
31 Jul 03
Along coasts with obliquely approaching waves there is a longshore (wave-driven) current. For this current one can
define an upstream and a DOWNSTREAM direction. For example, on a beach with an orientation west-east with the sea to
the north, the waves come from NW. Then the current flows from West to East. Here, upstream is West of the observer, and
East is DOWNSTREAM of the observer.
The process by which water rises from a deeper to a shallower depth, usually as a result of offshore surface water
flow. It is most prominent where persistent wind blows parallel to a coastline so that the resultant Ekman transport moves
surface water away from the coast.
Appendix A Glossary of Coastal Terminology