Figure II-7-1. Harbor siting classifications

Wave Diffraction

Figure II-7-2. Wave diffraction, definition of terms

Figure II-7-3. Wave diffraction diagram - 600 wave angle

Waves passing through a structure gap

Figure II-7-5. Contours of equal diffraction coefficient gap width = 0.5 wavelength (B/L = 0.5)

Figure II-7-7. Diffraction for a breakwater gap of one wavelength width where φ = 0 deg

Irregular wave diffraction.

Figure II-7-9. Diffraction for a breakwater gap of one wavelength width where φ = 30 deg

Figure II-7-10. Diffraction for a breakwater gap of one wavelength width where φ = 45 deg

Combined refraction-diffraction in harbors.

Combined diffraction - reflection in harbors.

Figure II-7-13. Diffraction diagram of a semi-infinite breakwater for directional random waves of normal incidence (Goda 2000)

Figure II-7-14. Diffraction diagrams of a breakwater gap with B/L = 1.0 for directional random waves of normal incidence (Goda 2000)

Figure II-7-15. Diffraction diagrams of a breakwater gap with B/L = 2.0 for directional random waves of normal incidence (Goda 2000)

Figure II-7-16. Diffraction diagrams of a breakwater gap with B/L = 4.0 for directional random waves of normal incidence (Goda 2000)

Figure II-7-17. Diffraction diagrams of a breakwater gap with B/L = 8.0 for directional random waves of normal incidence (Goda 2000)

Wave Transmission

Figure II-7-18. Schematic breakwater profile and definition of terms

Permeable rubble-mound structures.

Figure II-7-19. Wave transmission for a low-crested breakwater (modified from Van der Meer and Angremond (1992))

Floating breakwaters.

Figure II-7-20. Common types of floating breakwaters

Figure II-7-21. Wave transmission coefficient for selected floating breakwaters (Giles and Sorensen 1979; Hales 1981)

Wave Reflection

Figure II-7-23. Complete and partial reflection

Table II-7-1. Wave Reflection Equation Coefficient Values Structure

Reflection from beaches

Figure II-7-24. Reflected wave crest pattern

Harbor Oscillations

Table II-7-2. Harbor Oscillation Characteristics

Mechanical analogy.

Figure II-7-27. Behavior of an oscillating system with one degree of freedom

Basins are generally shallow relative to their length

Figure II-7-28. Behavior of an oscillating system with one degree of freedom

Figure II-7-29. Motions in a standing wave

Figure II-7-30. Theoretical response curves of symmetrical, narrow, rectangular harbor (Raichlen (1968); after Ippen and Goda (1963))

Figure II-7-31. Resonant length and amplification factor of symmetrical rectangular harbor

Open basins - complex shapes.

Figure II-7-32. Node locations for a dominant mode of oscillation in a square harbor

Figure II-7-33. Response curves for rectangular harbor with flat and sloping bottom (Zelt 1986)

Figure II-7-34. Resonant response of idealized harbors with different geometry (Zelt 1986)

Figure II-7-35. Photograph of physical model, Barbers Point Harbor, HI (Briggs et al. 1994)

Figure II-7-36. Numerical model grid for Barbers Point Harbor, HI (Briggs et al. 1994)

Figure II-7-37. Amplification factors for five resonant periods, Barbers Point Harbor, HI (Briggs et al. 1994)

Figure II-7-38. Phases for five resonant periods, Barbers Point Harbor, HI (Briggs et al. 1994)

Flushing/Circulation

Wind effects.

Figure II-7-39. Exchange coefficients - rectangular harbor, TRP = 0.4 (modified from Falconer (1980))

River discharge.

Physical model studies.

Table II-7-4. Advantages of Physical and Numerical Models

Vessel Interactions

Vessel-generated waves.

Figure II-7-41. Typical vessel-generated wave record

Vessel motions.

Response to currents

Vessel sinkage and trim

Figure II-7-42. Definition of terms, vessel drawdown

Figure II-7-43. Vessel sinkage prediction

Ship maneuverability in restricted waterways.

Figure II-7-44. Pressure fields for moving vessels (vessels moving left to right)

Mooring.

Mooring lines.

Surge natural period.

Figure II-7-45. Mooring fiber rope elongation curves

EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-7-7

EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-7-7 (cont)

Table II-7-6. Drag Coefficients for Wind Force

EXAMPLE PROBLEM II-7-8

Mooring forces.

References - Part-II-Chap70079

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70080

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70081

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70082

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70083

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70084

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70085

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70086

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70087

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70088

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70089

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70090

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70091

References (cont) - Part-II-Chap70092

Definitions of Symbols - Part-II-Chap70093

Definitions of Symbols (cont) - Part-II-Chap70094

Definitions of Symbols (cont) - Part-II-Chap70095

Definitions of Symbols (cont) - Part-II-Chap70096

Acknowledgments - Part-II-Chap70097

Part-II-Chap7